This update of the 1981 classic on neural networks includes new commentaries by the authors that show how the original ideas are related to subsequent developments. As researchers continue to uncover ways of applying the complex information processing abilities of neural networks, they give these models an exciting future which may well involve revolutionary developments in understanding the brain and the mind — developments that may allow researchers to build adaptive intelligent machines. The original chapters show where the ideas came from and the new commentaries show where they are going.
Based upon lectures presented at an invitational colloquium in honor of Nico Frijda, this collection of essays represents a brief and up-to-date overview of the field of emotions, their significance and how they function. For most, emotions are simply what we feel, giving our lives affective value. Scientists approach emotions differently — some considering the “feeling” aspect to be of little relevance to their research questions. Some investigators consider emotions from a phenomenological perspective, while others believe that the psychophysiological bases of the emotions are of prime importance, and still others observe and study animals in order to generate hypotheses about human emotions. Containing essays which represent each of these approaches, this book is in one sense a heterogenous collection. Nevertheless, the variety of approaches and interests come together, since these scholars are all operating from a more or less cognitive psychological orientation and use the same conceptual reference scheme. Written by experts in their own area, the essays reflect the richness of research in emotions. Whether these approaches and opinions can be harmonized into a single theory of emotions is a question which the future will have to answer.
Psychologists of varying theoretical persuasions have long held that social experiences are critical to normal developmental trajectories and that the lack of such experiences is worthy of compensatory attention. Surprisingly, however, little empirical attention has been directed to the study of the psychological significance of social solitude for children. In an effort to shed new light on the meanings and developmental course of social solitude in childhood, a group of esteemed scholars from Europe and North America was invited to share and exchange information. An international audience of researchers actively involved in the study of social withdrawal and social inhibition or shyness in childhood was led in discussion by the scholars whose chapters are published in this volume. The editors hope that this offering stimulates continuing efforts to better understand the developmental meanings, causes, and courses of this childhood social dysfunction.
This book represents the best of the first three years of the Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology conferences. While chaos theory has been a topic of considerable interest in the physical and biological sciences, its applications in psychology and related fields have been obscured until recently by its complexity. Nevertheless, a small but rapidly growing community of psychologists, neurobiologists, sociologists, mathematicians, and philosophers have been coming together to discuss its implications and explore its research possibilities. Chaos theory has been termed the first authentic paradigm shift since the advent of quantum physics. Whether this is true or not, it unquestionably bears profound implications for many fields of thought. These include the cognitive analysis of the mind, the nature of personality, the dynamics of psychotherapy and counseling, understanding brain events and behavioral records, the dynamics of social organization, and the psychology of prediction. To each of these topics, chaos theory brings the perspective of dynamic self-organizing processes of exquisite complexity. Behavior, the nervous system, and social processes exhibit many of the classical characteristics of chaotic systems — they are deterministic and globally predictable and yet do not submit to precise predictability. This volume is the first to explore ideas from chaos theory in a broad, psychological perspective. Its introduction, by the prominent neuroscientist Walter Freeman, sets the tone for diverse discussions of the role of chaos theory in behavioral research, the study of personality, psychotherapy and counseling, mathematical cognitive psychology, social organization, systems philosophy, and the understanding of the brain.
This advanced undergraduate textbook structures and integrates research on imagery under four headings: imagery as a personal or phenomenal experience; imagery as a mental representation; imagery as a property or attribute of materials; and imagery as a cognitive process that is under strategic control. A major part of the discussion under each of these headings concerns the ways in which the structures, mechanisms, and processes in the brain mediate our subjective experience of imagery and our observable behaviour when we make use of it in cognitive tasks.
First published in 1994. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
First published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Stephen A. Mitchell has been at the forefront of the broad paradigmatic shift in contemporary psychoanalysis from the traditional one-person model to a two-person, interactive, relational perspective. In Influence and Autonomy in Psychoanalysis, Mitchell provides a critical, comparative framework for exploring the broad array of concepts newly developed for understanding interactive processes between analysand and analyst. Drawing on the broad traditions of Kleinian theory and interpersonal psychoanalysis, as well as object relations and progressive Freudian thought, he considers in depth the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis, anachronistic ideals like anonymity and neutrality, the nature of analytic knowledge and authority, and the problems of gender and sexual orientation in the age of postmodernism. The problem of influence guides his discussion of these and other topics. How, Mitchell asks, can analytic clinicians best protect the patient’s autonomy and integrity in the context of our growing appreciation of the enormous personal impact of the analyst on the process? Although Mitchell explores many facets of the complexity of the psychoanalytic process, he presents his ideas in his customarily lucid, jargon-free style, making this book appealing not only to clinicians with various backgrounds and degrees of experience, but also to lay readers interested in the achievements of, and challenges before, contemporary psychoanalysis. A splendid effort to relate parallel lines of theorizing and derivative changes in clinical practice and informed by mature clinical judgment and broad scholarship into the history of psychoanalytic ideas, Influence and Autonomy in Psychoanalysis takes a well-deserved place alongside Mitchell’s previous books. It is a brilliant synthesis of converging insights that have transformed psychoanalysis in our time, and a touchstone for enlightened dialogue as psychoanalysis approaches the millennium.
Educational gerontology is the study of the changes in the learning process caused by old age. This new edition provides an update of developments in this field of research. The volume probes topics such as implications for education for the aging, reminiscence, methods of teaching, social exchange and equal opportunity.