Voting for Democracy

First published in 1999, the essays in this book examine the context and conduct of a series of watershed elections held in Anglophone Africa in the first half of the 1990s. These elections crystallized a wider process of democratization, underway in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the last decade, in which attempts were made to shift from various forms of authoritarian rule (colonial or racial oligarchies, military regimes, one-party states, or presidential rule) to pluralist parliamentary politics. This volume brings together for the first time, studies of these events in countries sharing a comparable legacy of British colonialism, an acquaintance with the Westminster constitutional tradition and related experiences of decolonization and democratic struggle. Written from a variety of perspectives by contributors with first-hand knowledge and long experience of research in Africa, the papers situate each election in its wider political context, examining the political forces at work and the events which gave rise to reform. All indicate that, despite Western pressure for reform and the influence of the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in Eastern Europe, internal African demands for democracy provided the primary driving force for change. Not all the elections fulfilled the hopes invested in them. In Nigeria, they were annulled before all the votes had been counted. In Kenya, the disarray of the opposition ensured the return to power of the old order. Even where they produced a successful regime transition, the democratic credentials of the new governments were sometimes seriously flawed. Yet for all these limitations, these watershed elections signalled important progress for African democracy. They brought a formal end to colonial rule in Namibia and to three centuries of racial discrimination in South Africa. They brought changes of government through the ballot box in Zambia and Malawi, among the first instances in Africa of such change being accomplished without the use of force. Above all, they provided African electorates with an opportunity to pass judgement on long-serving authoritarian regimes – with unequivocal results: in every case, when given the chance to vote, Africans voted for democracy.

Therapies for Nail Disorders

This concise text presents the essential points of diagnosis and a quick guide to what are currently the best evidence-based practices in treatment methods. In addition to material on the diseases themselves, there are useful appendices on how to carry out ancillary procedures. Contents: Acute paronychia * Bowen disease * Brittle nails * Chronic paronychia * Eczema * Erythronychia * Glomus tumor * Hematomas * Herpes simplex * Ingrowing nail * Lichen planus * Melanoma * Melanonychias * Myxoid cysts * Onycholysis * Onychomatricoma * Onychomycosis * Onychotillomania * Psoriasis * Retronychia * Squamous cell carcinoma * Subungual exostosis * Trachyonychia * Transverse overcurvature * Warts * Yellow nail syndrome * Practical procedures * Preparing a biopsy specimen

Computer Holography

  This book describes algorithms and hardware implementations of computer holography, especially in terms of fast calculation. It summarizes the basics of holography and computer holography and describes how conventional diffraction calculations play a central role. Numerical implementations by actual codes will also be discussed. This book will explain new fast diffraction calculations, such as scaled scalar diffraction. Computer Holography will also explain acceleration algorithms for computer-generated hologram (CGH) generation and digital holography with 3D objects composed of point clouds, using look-up table- (LUT) based algorithms, and a wave front recording plane. 3D objects composed of polygons using tilted plane diffraction, expressed by multi-view images and RGB-D images, will be explained in this book. Digital holography, including inline, off-axis, Gabor digital holography, and phase shift digital holography, will also be explored. This book introduces applications of computer holography, including phase retrieval algorithm, holographic memory, holographic projection, and deep learning in computer holography, while explaining hardware implementations for computer holography. Recently, several parallel processors have been released (for example, multi-core CPU, GPU, Xeon Phi, and FPGA). Readers will learn how to apply algorithms to these processors. Features Provides an introduction of the basics of holography and computer holography Summarizes the latest advancements in computer-generated holograms Showcases the latest researchers of digital holography Discusses fast CGH algorithms and diffraction calculations, and their actual codes Includes hardware implementation for computer holography, and its actual codes and quasi-codes

Working in Organisations

First published in 2004, this volume recognises that, as society changes, so must its organisations; as organisations change, so must their management competencies. The requirement for organisations to be flexible, innovative and adaptable in environments of increasing complexity and uncertainty is also a requirement of any organisation’s most essential resource: its people. They not only work for the organisation – they are the organisation. The second edition of this highly successful book provides a comprehensive and thought-provoking examination of the operational and strategic skills, demands and responsibilities of the modern workforce, and in particular its management. Reflected here are the manager’s new and changing priorities. Attention is given to the manager’s role, the motivation to work and succeed, and teamworking. Also emphasised is the new psychological contract, highlighting reliance on self whilst maintaining sensitivity to diversity concerns. Providing clear and decisive leadership requires the projection of a vision that captures the imagination of others, but inevitably managers face conflict and adversity. Working in Organisations therefore discusses how power and politics can be moulded to positive advantage. The challenges facing organisations go beyond cost and profitability, as political and environmental challenges have forcefully entered into managerial responsibility. The book asks ‘What is the ultimate purpose and contribution of organisations?’ and highlights profound governance and ethics concerns. The design of organisations is also explored, and how creating appropriate structures will in turn focus resources to achieve desired ends. This book provides a broad coverage of key issues, ranging from a close examination of the manager’s job to a discussion of the corporate and social forces that determine our lives. Written in an easy-to-read style and bursting with case examples, Working in Organisations acts as mentor and guide to those whose quest is for ever greater sustainable accomplishment. Written by a distinguished team of authors, this book will continue to be welcomed as the definitive text on organisational culture and change for academics, researchers and managers around the world.

Judicial Process and Judicial Policymaking

An excellent introduction to judicial politics as a method of analysis, the seventh edition of Judicial Process and Judicial Policymaking focuses on policy in the judicial process. Rather than limiting the text to coverage of the U.S. Supreme Court, G. Alan Tarr examines the judiciary as the third branch of government, and weaves four major premises throughout the text: 1) Courts in the United States have always played an important role in governing and their role has increased in recent decades; 2) Judicial policymaking is a distinctive activity; 3) Courts make policy in a variety of ways; and 4) Courts may be the objects of public policy, as well as creators. New to the Seventh Edition ? New cases through the end of the Supreme Court’s 2018 term. ? New case studies on the Garland-Gorsuch controversy; plea negotiation (of special relevance to the Trump administration); and the litigation over Obamacare, as well as brief coverage of the Kavanaugh confirmation. ? Expanded coverage of the crisis in the legal profession, sentencing with attention to the rise of mass incarceration and the issue of race, constitutional interpretation and the rise of “originalism,” and same-sex marriage. ? Updated tables and figures throughout. ? A new online e-Resource including edited cases, a glossary of terms, and resources for further learning. This text is appropriate for all students of judicial process and policy.

Battlefield Forensics for Persian Gulf States

Battlefield Forensics for Persian Gulf States provides an illustrative reference of various weapons, toolmarks, headstamps, and other traits in order to identify the origins of a variety of guns, casings, and ammunition that can be found in the Middle East. Various conflicts in the region have led to innumerable weapons being used throughout the years. The lead author, Don Mikko, has investigated and examined firearms related items of evidence in countless crime scenes throughout the world. As the Chief of the Firearms Branch at the United States Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory (USACIL), Fort Gillem, Georgia, he recruited, trained, and competency tested military contractors deploying to various combat related areas of the world, those providing forensic firearm and toolmark identification support to local commanders. What was learned was that various foreign weapons and ammunition were being utilized in conflicts and by opposing forces. This book educates readers on the technical data for different types of firearms, ammunition, countries of origin, proof marks, penetrator information and the typical firearm markings imparted on fired cartridge cases, such as breech-face, firing pin, ejector, and extractor markings. Forensics and biometrics within the Persian Gulf have been leveraged since the early 1990s and many of the firearms and types of ammunition covered in this handbook are addressed in an effort to assist those on the ground who are required to be able to identify such items in various scenarios. The information contained within the book has proven to be effective on the battlefield and has helped shape combat operations. This handbook will serve as a useful reference not only to assist military and contractor personnel within the various combat locations but will also prove to be beneficial for law-enforcement, crime laboratory personnel, forensic firearm and toolmark examiners, crime scene investigators, students, practitioners, and civilian personnel throughout the world.

Teaching Life

In this engaging book, Armand Doucet, a globally respected and recognized teacher, provides a clear roadmap for championing classroom-focused change in a technology-advanced society. Teaching Life brings the voices of teachers into the global conversation about educational reform to offer a how-to for implementing into classrooms design thinking, technology integration and a holistic education based on competencies, social-emotional learning and the literacies. With the innovative ideas in this book, educators can create a foundation for sustainable, honest, transparent leadership and work toward building a true community of local and global learning.

National Security

The seventh edition of this highly successful textbook analyzes the history, evolution, and processes of national security policies. It examines national security from two fundamental fault lines – the end of the Cold War and the evolution of contemporary terrorism dating from the 9/11 terrorist attacks – and traces their path up to ISIS and beyond. The book considers how the resulting era of globalization and geopolitics guides policy. Placing these trends in conceptual and historical context and following them through military, semimilitary, and nonmilitary concerns, National Security treats its subject as a nuanced and subtle phenomenon that encompasses everything from the global to the individual with the nation at its core. New to the Seventh Edition An assessment of the impact of the Trump presidency on national security and relevant domestic policies, including border security and energy security matters. The continuing impact and evolution of terrorism as a security problem, with notable emphasis on the decline of the Islamic State (IS) and what terrorist threats are likely to succeed it. A description of the cyber security problem with an emphasis on Russian efforts to interfere with the 2016 US presidential election and beyond. A revised delineation of the geographic and substantive challenges facing the United States in the form of a chapter on “lethal landscapes,” emphasizing the rise of China as a global rival and opponent in Asia and an attempt to deal with state aspirants like the Kurds. This book will continue to be highly beneficial to students and scholars working and studying in security studies, military and strategic studies, defense studies, foreign policy, US politics and international relations.

Late Night with Trump

Political humor has been a staple of late-night television for decades. The Trump White House, however, has received significantly greater attention than that of past presidents, such as Barack Obama, George W. Bush, and even Bill Clinton. In response to Trump’s strident politics, late-night comics, including Stephen Colbert, Jimmy Kimmel, Trevor Noah and Jimmy Fallon, have sounded key policy notes, further blurring the boundary between news and satire. Weekly humorists, including John Oliver and Samantha Bee, extend the critique with in-depth probing of key issues, while Saturday Night Live continues to tap the progression from outrage to outrageousness. Using unique content analysis techniques and qualitative discussions of political humor, Farnsworth and Lichter show how late-night political humor, and these seven programs in particular, have responded to the Trump presidency. Employing a dataset of more than 100,000 late night jokes going back decades, these noted media scholars discuss how the treatment of Trump differs from previous presidents, and how the Trump era is likely to shape the future of political humor. The authors also employ public opinion survey data to consider the growing role these late-night programs play in framing public opinion and priorities. This book will interest scholars, the curious public, and students of politics, communications and the media, and contemporary American culture.

Ethics of Cinematic Experience

Ethics of Cinematic Experience: Screens of Alterity deals with the relationship between cinema and ethics from a philosophical perspective, finding an intrinsic connection between film spectatorship and the possibility of being open to different modes of alterity. The book’s main thesis is that openness to otherness is already found in the basic structures of cinematic experience. Through a close examination of the ethical relevance of the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Stanley Cavell, Emmanuel Levinas and Gilles Deleuze to cinema studies, Ethics of Cinematic Experience: Screens of Alterity pursues the question of how film can open the viewer to what is not her, and so bring her to encounter otherness in a way that is unique to cinematic experience. The book sees ethics as not just the subject, content or story of a film but part of its aesthetic structure. Accompanied by readings of films mainly from mainstream cinema, each chapter focuses on a different aspect of the encounter with alterity through cinema. The book gives particular attention to how theoretical discussion of the cinematic close-up can lead to ethical insights into the status of both the human and the non-human in film, and thus lead to an understanding of the relationships the viewer makes with them. The book is a helpful resource for students and scholars interested in the relationship between philosophy, film and ethics, and is appropriate for students of philosophy and media and cultural studies.