Mental Mechanisms: Philosophical Perspectives on Cognitive Neuroscience

A variety of scientific disciplines have set as their task explaining mental activities, recognizing that in some way these activities depend upon our brain. But, until recently, the opportunities to conduct experiments directly on our brains were limited. As a result, research efforts were split between disciplines such as cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence that investigated behavior, while disciplines such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and genetics experimented on the brains of non-human animals. In recent decades these disciplines integrated, and with the advent of techniques for imaging activity in human brains, the term cognitive neuroscience has been applied to the integrated investigations of mind and brain. This book is a philosophical examination of how these disciplines continue in the mission of explaining our mental capacities.

The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment

In The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment, editors Carl B. Gacono and Barton Evans underscore the unique contribution the Rorschach makes to forensic practice. The chapters, all of which include the expertise of a licensed practicing forensic psychologist, offer a systematic approach to personality assessment when presenting use of the Rorschach in specific forensic contexts.


The book opens with essential information related to the scientific and legal basis of the Rorschach. This section covers fundamental elements for preparing informed court testimony, including admissibility of the Rorschach, the authority of the Rorschach, Rorschach assessment of malingering and defensive response, and presenting and defending Rorschach testimony. Part II addresses models for using the Rorschach in typical forensic evaluations in both criminal and civil cases. The section to follow presents updated references samples for various forensic populations. Gacono and Evans conclude with useful models for the Rorschach use in specialized areas of forensic practice, such as battered women, immigration court assessment, assessing impaired professionals, and working within the field of police psychology.


The Handbook of Forensic Rorschach Assessment is a comprehensive resource designed to guide psychologists in their forensic practice.


Covert art by Carl B. Gacono


 


 

Single-Word Reading: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives

As the first title in the new series, New Directions in Communication Disorders Research: Integrative Approaches, this volume discusses a unique phenomenon in cognitive science, single-word reading, which is an essential element in successful reading competence. Single-word reading is an interdisciplinary area of research that incorporates phonological, orthographic, graphemic, and semantic information in the representations suitable for the task demands of reading. Editors Elena L. Grigorenko and Adam J. Naples have organized a collection of essays written by an outstanding group of scholars in order to systematically sample research on this important topic, as well as to describe the research within different experimental paradigms.


Single-Word Reading provides an introduction to unfamiliar areas of research, and is an inspiration for future study. The introductory chapter sets up a contextual stage for connections between spoken and written word processing, the stage-based nature of their development, and the role of education. Succeeding chapters address visual word processing; the role of morphology in word recognition; the role of lexical representation; the biological bases of single-word reading and related processes; and more.


Reading researchers will take interest in this substantial book, as will professionals and practitioners linked to the teaching of reading in the departments of school psychology, special education, communication disorders, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, and reading.

Thinking With Data

The chapters in Thinking With Data are based on presentations given at the 33rd Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. The Symposium was motivated by the confluence of three emerging trends: (1) the increasing need for people to think effectively with data at work, at school, and in everyday life, (2) the expanding technologies available to support people as they think with data, and (3) the growing scientific interest in understanding how people think with data.


What is thinking with data? It is the set of cognitive processes used to identify, integrate, and communicate the information present in complex numerical, categorical, and graphical data. This book offers a multidisciplinary presentation of recent research on the topic. Contributors represent a variety of disciplines: cognitive and developmental psychology; math, science, and statistics education; and decision science. The methods applied in various chapters similarly reflect a scientific diversity, including qualitative and quantitative analysis, experimentation and classroom observation, computational modeling, and neuroimaging. Throughout the book, research results are presented in a way that connects with both learning theory and instructional application.


The book is organized in three sections:



  • Part I focuses on the concepts of uncertainty and variation and on how people understand these ideas in a variety of contexts.

  • Part II focuses on how people work with data to understand its structure and draw conclusions from data either in terms of formal statistical analyses or informal assessments of evidence.

  • Part III focuses on how people learn from data and how they use data to make decisions in daily and professional life.

Situation Models and Levels of Coherence: Toward a Definition of Comprehension

The mental representation of what one reads is called a “situation model” or a “mental model.” The process of reading causes an interaction of the new knowledge with what is already known. Though a number of theories and models have been proposed to describe this interaction, Tapiero proposes a new model that assumes a variety of storage areas to previous knowledge, and that the reader picks and chooses which of these models is most relevant to what is being read. These are called “levels of coherence.” It’s a dynamic process as well, as the reader chooses and abandons the storage units of previous knowledge as he or she reads on. Situation Models and Levels of Coherence is of professional and scholarly interest to cognitive scientists who specialize in reading, knowledge representation, mental models, discourse analysis, and metaphor/symbol.

Perspectives on Organizational Fit

This book concerns how employees consider their work lives, how well they fit their jobs, the work setting, other people, and what is important and valued in their organizations. Perspectives on Organizational Fit, a new book in SIOP’s Organizational Frontiers Series, takes a scholarly look at fit in organizations: the relationship between individuals and the environments in which they find themselves.


As the volume extends upon recent advances in fit theory, the contributors address how fit theory is used within selection, recruitment, diversity, and leadership teams. It also explores the integration of different fit perspectives, and clarifies the methodological and statistical issues that plague fit research.


The burgeoning interest in fit issues makes this book especially timely. It is comprised of three parts that cover:



  • new directions in fit processes, as well as micro and macro levels of analysis;

  • methodological and statistics issues that pertain to conducting fit research; and

  • reflections from the chapter authors and the continuing challenges of future research in fit theory.

Perspectives on Organizational Fit is appropriate for researchers and professionals in the areas of human resource management, organizational behavior, and industrial organizational psychology.

Psychological Clinical Science: Papers in Honor of Richard M. McFall

Psychological Clinical Science offers readers insightful appraisals of the most current theory and research in psychopathology and evidence-based intervention.  It honors Richard McFall of Indiana University, a visionary psychological clinical scientist widely recognized for his unwavering advocacy for a science of clinical psychology and for the integration of clinical psychology with other subdisciplines of psychological science. With the publication of this volume, Psychology Press and the Association for Psychological Science are launching jointly a series of festschrifts that honor the careers and contributions of distinguished psychological scientists.


In keeping with McFall’s integrative approach to psychological science, contributors to this volume include prominent clinical scientists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists. The book details the historical and epistemological underpinnings of psychological clinical science, addresses topics of applied significance, offers an overview of several model research programs, and suggests future directions in clinical science research, application, and training.


An accompanying DVD contains an interview with McFall on his career and the clinical science movement, which provides an inspiring and fascinating glimpse of his perspective on the past, present, and future of psychological clinical science.

Stereotype Dynamics: Language-Based Approaches to the Formation, Maintenance, and Transformation of Stereotypes

This volume addresses the role of communication in stereotype dynamics, while placing the phenomenon of social stereotypes appropriately in the socio-cultural context. Stereotype Dynamics assembles top researchers in the field to investigate stereotype formation, maintenance, and transformation through interpersonal facets of communication.


Section one presents meta-theoretical perspectives, strongly informed by theories and empirical research. Subsequent parts address the following research questions in the perspectives of language-based communication:



  • What do the signs in a language mean, and how do the meanings of the signs shape stereotypes?

  • How do people use those signs intentionally or unintentionally? Is language use biased in some way?

  • How do language users’ identities affect the meaning of a particular language use in social context?

  • What are the social consequences of language-based communication? Does language-based communication provide a basis for the formation, maintenance, and transformation or social stereotypes?

This timely book is ideal for advanced students, scholars, and researchers in social psychology, and related disciplines such as human communications and sociolinguistics. It is also appropriate for use as a supplement in upper level courses on prejudice and stereotyping.

Memory and Mind: A Festschrift for Gordon H. Bower

A comprehensive overview of the current state of research on memory and mind, this book captures the career and influence of Gordon H. Bower (as told by 22 of his students and colleagues), showing how Bower’s research and mentoring of students has broadly and deeply affected modern research. In addition to many personal reminisces about Bower’s research and graduate training in the 1950s through 1990s, this book illustrates how Bower’s early research and ideas lay the groundwork for much of modern psychological studies of memory, expertise, psychological assessment, and mental imagery.